SPATIAL, ENVIRONMENTAL, ENERGY AND SOCIAL ASPECTS OF DEVELOPING SETTLEMENTS AND CLIMATE CHANGE – MUTUAL IMPACTS
Ev. No: TR 36035 (Ministry of Education, Science and Technologica Development)
Period: 01.01.2011. – 31.12.2014.
Project leader: dr Mila Pucar, naučni savetnik, IAUS
Institute of Architecture and Urban&Spatial Planning of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia
Faculty of Architecture University of Belgrade, Serbia
Faculty of Civil Engineering University of Belgrade, Serbia
University of Belgrade's School Of Electrical Engineering, Serbia
Institute of Technical Sciences of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Belgrade, Serbia
Faculty of Mathematics, University of Niš, Serbia
Number of Researchers of the Project: 49
DESCRIPTION OF RESEARCH
This subproject researches a new paradigm of settlement development based on principles, criteria and standards of climate responsive planning and building.The research will integrate the questions of climate change impact to functional organization of settlements, land use, urban design and building. Research will be aimed at the technical-technological aspects of buildings,disposition,volume, materials and their impact on the lifespan of the building, maintenance and energy consumption.The impacts of the built and non-built space on the microclimate of the settlement will be examined.
It also deals with concepts, recommendations, methods and tools for supporting a climate responsible spatial development on all levels of management.This implies the conception of new institutional arrangements, innovating regulations, norms and standards for the decision-making process.The impact of energy consumption in settlements on climate change will be researched.The current state will also be analyzed along with the development strategy in the sectors of sustainable planning, energy consumption and communal waste management.Apart from theoretical, there will also be experimental researches.
Within the engineering of information and knowledge, the following topics are explored and developed:3D Urban Information Model aimed at exploring interrelations between urban development and climate changes;Knowledge Base on interrelations between urban development and climate changes.
Keywords: climate responsive urban planning,optimizat.,informat. support,energy effic.,RES, knowledge base
Climate change and global ecological and energy crisis are the result of urban growth, industrial expansion, inefficient technologies and overconsumption of fossil fuels. The IPCC Third Assessment Report(IPCC, 2001)concludes that settlements among all human systems are the most sensitive to climate changes. This project will deal with the issues of repositioning spatial and urban planning and building settlements, and will result in the answers that are of strategic importance for development. In addition to simulating various parameters on models, examination on concrete pilot projects is planned within the project. In accordance with these problems the following subprojects were formed:
SP 1:Climate change as a factor in spatial development of settlements, natural landscapes and sceneries(SP leader: Milica Bajić Brković)
SP 2:Technical-technological aspects of planning and designing the physical structures of settlements and their impact on climate change(SP: Igor Marić)
SP 3:Strengthening institutions, social and institutional aspects of integrating responsible spatial development(SP: Ksenija Lalović)
SP 4:Energy supply and ecological aspects of spatial development and climate change(SP leaders: Mila Pucar, Boško Josimović)
SP 5:Informatics, development of indicators and monitoring system, geosimulation modeling and spatial statistics as the precondition of spatial development of settlements(SP leaders: Mirjana Devetaković, Dragutin Protić)
Acknowledging the significance of climate change, and its effects on the further development of settlements and landscapes, as well as establishing control over all the factors that cause climate change are the primary tasks of those who plan and make decisions regarding spatial planning. This research will give solutions and suggestions that refer to the methodology of planning, types of plans, functional organization of settlements, treatment of open spaces and urban landscapes, as well as the standards for physical building, and for the replacement of the existing building fund with a new one that will be environmentally responsible, and in accordance with the standards of an ecological, i.e., climate responsive design and building.
The building fund in Serbia is of a different quality and subject to renovation. On the other hand, future construction will occupy the non-built space in its current fabric and outside of it. The development of infrastructure, which is the basis for building and reconstruction of new physical structures, should adequately follow their development. Rationalization applied through planning and engineering techniques is necessary, so that the renovation of the old and the construction of the new urban space could be sustainable. The proposed innovative measures will be defined, which would influence the changes in standards and regulations and be accompanied with a typology of physical structures, numeric indicators and adequate parameters that have an impact on climate change.
In cities, the poor often live in informal settlements, located in risk-prone areas. These populations are extremely vulnerable to climate change because of their limited resources that hamper their ability to respond to changing conditions.
Researching the potentials and ways in the area of institutional development for managing climate changes on all levels of management, and developing a climate responsive approach to planning and development should, on one hand, contribute to the processes of change and improvement of planning practice, and on the other, direct the redesign of the roles and responsibilities different parties have in the development process. The research will provide a series of proposals for innovating institutional arrangements, and conception of the climate and environmentally responsible regulations, norms and standards that will enable their efficient integration in the decision-making for the climate responsive spatial development on all levels of management.
Buildings consume around 50% of all the produced energy. Reducing energy consumption in buildings is possible by an energy efficient urban planning and building design, by applying the bioclimatic principles and the use of RES. An assessment of current urban capacities for an efficient implementation of RES will be carried out in a study case.The potentials will be analyzed for producing electric and thermal energy from solar energy on the roofs of town objects. It is planned to develop methods and instruments for assessing impact, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change by applying indicators and criteria relevant for spatial organization of the most modern technologies for preventing conflicts in space.
Within the work on 3D Urban Information Models, collecting and standardazation of data (application of cityGML as an OGC standard for modeling, transfer and storage of geospatial data) will be included, along with monitoring system development; architecture of the geo-information system(definition of the objects of interest and their attributes, indicator system development, incorporating temporal dimension).
Exploration of available knowledge on interrelations between urban development and climatic changes; creation and use of the Knowledge Base that integrates the domain knowledge created within this project, as well as in a wider social and professional context; promotion and linking of this Knowledge Base with similar resources on the national and regional level.
Expected key results:
Defining policies and strategies on state, regional and local level
Defining standards for spatial and urban planning
Defining climatic and CO2 responsible urban standards
Establishing energy, climatic and CO2 responsible control of projects and plans
Defining fields of application of technological innovations in building
Creating the basis for improving higher education of, primarily, architects, urban and spatial planners.
The key results of SP1will be:Overview and assessment of the status quo opposite the requirements of a climate responsive relation to space and development;Updated methodology of planning the development of settlements and building in accordance with the criteria of climate responsive and CO2 reduction planning and design;Suggestions for the climate responsive urban standards;Concept and elements of spatial organization and spatial solutions that are in accordance with CO2 responsible urban design.
The key results of SP2 will be: recommendations and instructions for planning and building physical structures in different types of settlements, different climatic regions. In one segment, it will refer to reconstruction of the current building fund, and in another to the building of a new one.
The key results of SP3 will be:Overview and assessment of the development of local capacities in municipalities and towns for the implementation of ICT tools for supporting a sustainable and climatically responsible urban development;Guidelines for institutional and regulative (standards, norms)improvements in the development of information support for a sustainable urban development;Methods and techniques in the application of ICT models of tools for supporting sustainable and climatically responsible urban development on a local level.
The key results of SP4 will be:Defining indicators and criteria for assessment of sustainability;Possible application of planning suppositions and modern technologies in preventing conflicts in space;Realizing the potentials and defining the models of spatial regional organization for waste management;including the local population, reducing unemployment, reducing poverty;Affirming the awareness of citizens about the development possibilities of the settlements they live in, by offering alternatives and possibilities of opening new jobs and keeping the inhabitants.
Establishment of a „smart“ service based on 3D Urban Information Model for sustainable urban planning and city management in harmonization with the principles of energy efficiency and reduction of CO2 emission – real case pilot project.
Developed Knowledge Base as Web application, available on the Internet, beta tested and promoted in professional, government and academic circles, as well as in media.
The results of research on the project will be published in magazines, for local and international conferences, in monographs. Technological results (plans, studies, databases, knowledge bases, maps etc).
The work on this project and the results of research are of great importance for the community and are among the strategic priorities of the country. They are a new page in the book of positioning Serbia among the European countries, and they provide one of the conditions for integrating the country into the EU.
The scientific contribution of this research is reflected in the creation of new foundations for theoretical and methodological harmonization of planning practices and town building in Serbia. By this project, the basis for the development of new methods and techniques is created that will be responsive to climate change, the environment, as well as to the citizens’ interests for a more quality living in the cities. Simultaneously, this way, a know –how corpus is made, which enables the establishment of effective communications with the surrounding and EU countries that will support the exchange of ideas, knowledge and experiences.
The contribution of this research in the applicative sense is reflected in improving the quality of town planning and building on the national and local level, and creating a scientifically based and practically confirmed material for the development of regulations, norms and standards of a climatically and especially, CO2 responsible development.
The importance of the research will be reflected in the establishment of a typological classification of the existing, as well as predictions and recommendations, based on models, which will be used for urban planning and construction of buildings with new nomenclature. Research will contribute to the development of urban and technical parameters harmonized with the European ones, and adapted to our technical, natural and social conditions.
Scientific contributions of this research is reflected in making new grounds for further theoretical and conceptual redefining institutional and information support for urban and spatial planning, and making the foundation for the development of new methods and techniques of planning in Serbia considering the concepts of new qualitative improvement of the information base. Contributions to this research on the level of implementation are in the domain of local and national level, and the making of a scientifically based and practically confirmed material for the development of regulations, norms and standards, mainly of the local home-rules.
The scientific contribution of the research in the field of energy efficiency will be a theoretical analysis, whose results will be applicable to planning solutions that reduce the greenhouse effects. The results of this project applied to practice will have an impact on reducing the effects of climate change on the current state in Serbia. They will contribute to defining spatial organization of RES, particularly the wind power plants in Serbia through the perspective of strategically important environmental impacts, with particular reflection on protecting the ornithofauna and chiropterofauna. They will also contribute to defining the model of spatial organization of waste management on the regional and local level, by applying modern technologies in waste treatment and exploitation of dumpsite gases.
Users of such services are local governments, institutions, professional communities and individuals interested in urban planning and design.
While the Knowledge Base is freely accessible, the 3D Smart Service, in terms of methodology, would be applicable in cases of other Serbian cities. The ROI (Return of Investment) is expected from a wider implementation of the Smart Service, within which certain percent of income would be allocated to support financial sustainability of the Knowledge Base.
Climate responsive planning, development and building, especially in relation to CO2, generate significant impacts on the cost of urban development and the life-long exploitation expenditures regarding the maintainenace of built structures and spatial development solutions, both on a mid- and long-term. The advantage is reflected primarily in the reduced investments associated with redevelopment and rehabilitation of buildings and other structures, and reduction of the negative effects on space. Therefore, it is considered as cost related more rational and efficient approach to development.
Investing in energy efficiency building of new objects and the reconstruction of the existing ones is an investment that has a relatively quick return, depending on the applied measures within planning and design. What needs to be emphasized here is that it is not only a question of reducing energy necessary for the heating and cooling of buildings, but this measure improves living comfort, extends human and work lifespan and reduces CO2 emissions. Some of these advantages can be analyzed economically, some not, for example the impact on people’s health. Apart from this, the application of new technologies, particularly those that use RES, contribute to raising the employment level and improving the population’s standard of living. Adopting a regulation on stimulative measures for the production of electric energy from RES and its purchase - Feed-in tariff, will contribute to faster development, greater and economically justifiable RES implementation.
The proposed 3D Urban Information Model (3D-UI Model) and the UD-CC Knowledge Base, resulted from the proposed informatics engineering within the proposed project, are aimed at being developed, tested and promoted, and being available to a wider professional community. Potential users of such services are local governments, related institutions, professional communities and individuals involved in urban planning and design.
While the UD-CC Knowledge base is aimed at being freely accessible for a wide professional community, the UD-CC 3D Information Model, in terms of methodology, would be applicable in cases of other Serbian cities. The ROI (Return of Investment) is expected from a wider implementation of the developed 3D Information Model, within which certain percent of income would be allocated to support financial sustainability of the UD-CC Knowledge Base.